1.REPORTS : 1.REPORTS text dalam bentuk reports menyajikan detail fakta tentang subyek yang spesifik. Reports haruslah berdasar pada fakta-fakta Report dapat didasarkan pada penelitian terhadap sebuah topic. Tujuannya : memberikan informasi
Susunan :1. Identification (identifikasi) : pernyataan pembuka untuk mengenalkan topic.2. Description (deskripsi) : Susunan :1. Identification (identifikasi) : pernyataan pembuka untuk mengenalkan topic.2. Description (deskripsi) Ciri Bahasa : Gunakan pola simple present tense Penggunaan kata benda (noun) sifatnya umum Penggunaan relating verbs, e,g reptiles are scaly animals (every reptile is scaly) Penggunaan action verbs, e.g lizards cannot fly Penggunaan istilah-istilah khusus, e.g water contains of oxygens and hydrogen Penggunaan noun phrases and clauses untuk memberikan deskripsi yang detail dari topic tersebut
2. Narrative : 2. Narrative Tujuannya untuk memberikan hiburan atau kesenangan pada para pembacanya. Susunan : Orientation : memperkenalkan pembaca pada karakter, setting serta conflict Evaluation : menampilkan konflik Complication : memberikan pembaca tentang krisis (puncak) dari konflik Resolution : menceritakan bagaimana masalah dipecahkan & bagaimana efeknya terhadap para tokoh. Ciri Bahasa : dalam bentuk past tense
3.Procedure : 3.Procedure Tujuan : menjelaskan bagaimana suatu hal diselesaikan melalui beberapa langkah Susunan : Tujuan (Goal) Bahan dan alat (Material / ingredients) Langkah – langkah pelaksanaan (steps) Ciri Bahasa : Simple Present Tense Kalimat perintah : cut, mix, etc Action verbs : put, mix, pour, etc Penghubung : then, while, after that, etc Keterangan : for five minutes, 2 cm from the top, etc
4.Descriptive : 4.Descriptive Text Descriptive adalah tulisan yang menggambarkan orang, tempat atau benda Susunan: Identification : mengidentifikasi objek yang akan di gambarkan Description : menggambarkan bagian, jumlah, kualitas, sifat dan ciri – ciri Ciri Bahasa : Fokus pada bagian – bagian detail Gunakan proses pengidentifikasian dan penggambaran Gunakan pola simple present Tense
5. RECOUNT : 5. RECOUNT Adalah Menghubungkan kejadian-kejadian untuk memberikan informasi atau hiburan kepada pembaca … Susunan : Orientation (pemahaman tentang siapa, dimana, kapan & mengapa) Event ( menceritakan yang terjadi secara kronologis) Re – Orientation ( ringkasan dan penutup kejadian ) Ciri Bahasa : Menggunakan past tense Fokus pada personal : I, you, we, They, he, she Penghubung waktu, untuk tetap menjaga alur : the, after, next, meanwhile,
6. EXPLANATION : 6. EXPLANATION Tujuan : menjelaskan suatu proses, menyangkut pembentukan dan berjalannya fenomena alam atau sosiokultural. Susunan : 1. General Statement (pernyataan umum/ pernyataan masalah) 2. A nsequenced explanation of why or how something occurs (urutan penjelasan mengenai mengapa atau bagaimana sesuatu terjadi) 3. Closing (Penutup) Ciri Bahasa : 1. Gunakan bentuk simple present tense 2. Keterangan – keterngan penjelas
7. News Item : 7. News Item Tujuan : Memberitakan kepada pembaca, pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. Susunan teks : 1. News worthy event(s) : Kejadian inti 2. Background events elaborasi kejadian, orang yang terlibat, tempat kejadian dst 3. Sources Komentar saksi kejadian, pendapat para ahli, dsb
8.Discussion : 8.Discussion Tujuan : – Menggali berbagai perspektif yang berbeda-beda sebelum sampai kepada keputusan atau kesimpulan yang hendak disampaikan – Menyajikan lebih dari satu informasi dan opini mengenai sebuah isu Susunan Teks : – Issue : Pernyataan pembuka yang menyajikan satu isu – Elaborasi argumen atau bukti setiap sudut yang berbeda (pro dan kontra) – Conlusion of recomdation (kesimpulan atau rekomendasi)
Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Chronologically arranged
Social function: To critique an art work or event for a public audience.
1. Orientation ( background information on the text)
2. Evaluation ( concluding statement : judgment, opinion, or recommendation. It can consist of more than one.
3. Interpretative Recount ( summary of an art works including characters and plot).
4. Evaluative summation: the last opinion consisting the appraisal or the punch line of the art works being criticized.
ü Focus on specific participants
ü Use of adjectives
ü Use of long and complex clauses
ü Use of metaphor
Reviews are used to summarize, analyze and respond to art works. They may include: movie, TV shows, books, plays, concerts, etc.
TEXT A DESCRIPTIVE
Museum Sejarah Jakarta
Also known as Museum Fatahilah, this museum was named after the sultan who defeated the portuguese in 1527. the Museum, located in Taman Fatahilah, used to be the heart of Dutch colonial administration. Formerly it was the Stadhuis or the Town Hall of Batavia, bult in 1627 and then renovated in 1705 – 1715.
The Museum has a collection of 18 th century furnishing, chinaware, ancient map of Jakarta, and potraits of former colonial governos. In the back of museum, there is a big old Portuguese cannon called is Jagur, with writing in Latin: Ex Me Ipsa Renata Sum (I am Reborn From Myself). It is said so to show that the cannon was remolded from several smaller cannons. It is believed that Jagur possesses certain mystical powers. Many women who aren’t able to bear children visit it shopping to be blessed with children.
TEXT B PROCEDURE
Sesame Drop Biscuits
a. 2 cups flour
b. 1 ½ teaspoons baking powder
c. ½ reaspoon each baking soda and salt
d. Butter or margarine
e. 2 tablespoons sesame seed
f. 1 cup buttermilk
g. In a large bowl stir together flour, baking powder, soda and salt.
h. With 2 knives or pastry blender cut in ½ cup butter until particles are fine .
i. Stir in sesame seed.
j. Add buttermilk to flour mixture and stir with a fork just until mixed.
k. Drop by tablespoons on greased cookies sheet.
l. Bake in preheated 450 degrees oven until light brown. 12 to 14 minutes.
m. Serve at once with butter.
How to make Lemonade
For each glass use:
– 2 tablespoons of lemon juice.
– 2 tablespoons of sugar.
– 1 glass of water.
1. Slice a lemon in half and squeeze the juice into a cup.
2. Take out the seeds.
3. Pour two tablespoons of juice into glass.
4. Add sugar.
5. Add water and stir well.
6. Taste the lemonade. You may want to add more sugar or more lemon to make it taste just right.
7. Put it in ice cubes. A drop of red food coloring will make pink lemonade.
TEXT C NARRATIVE
Long ago on the top of Mount Kinabalu in Borneo, there lived a dragon. He owned a large and beautiful pearl. People believed that he controlled the weather with it.
The emperor of China heard this and wanted the pearl. He sent his two sons, Wee Ping and Wee San to Borneo to steal it. The princes, together with one hundred soldiers, set sail for Borneo in twelve sailing junks.
When they arrived in Borneo, The set out immediately to find the famous mountain. Their journey up the rugged slopes of Mount Kinabalu proved very difficult. The dragon guarded his cave very fiercely and killed many of their soldiers.
Then Wee San had a clever idea. He climbed a tall tree, so he could see the dragon’s cave. He noted what time the dragon left his cave to hunt for food and what time he returned to it.
Next he ordered his men to make a fake pearl and a large kite. He waited until the dragon left his cave. Then he placed the fake pearl in a bag, slung it across his shoulder and flew up to the mountain-top on the kite. He exchanged the real pearl for the fake one and then his brother pulled his kite back to the ground.
The brothers quickly returned to their ships and set sail for China. They sailed safely home. The emperor was thrilled with the pearl and gave a big party to celebrate his sons’ return.
TEXT D REPORT
Tsunami is a Japanese word from a seismic sea wave generated by an undersea earthquake or possibly an undersea landslide or volcanic eruption Description: Most tsunamis originate along the Ring of Fire. It is a zone of volcanoes and sesmic activity, 32.500 (24.000 mi) long. The zone encircles the Pacific Ocean Historically, tsunamis caused much property destruction and loss of life. Since 1819, about 40 tsunamis have struck the Hawaiian island and since 1883, about 20 tsunamis have struck Indonesia. The last one was on December 26,2004 and cause over 100.000 dead tolls. A Tsunami can have the width of 100 to 200 km and may travel hundreds of kilometers a cross the deep ocean. The speed is at about 50 to 1000 km per hour (it is as fast as jet plane). When the wave reach the land, it can be very high, which is about 15 m high or more.
TEXT E RECOUNT
Our school sent its table team to the city to take part in the city champion ship recently. The players consist of men’s and women’s singles and doubles. Event : We went to the city by car. When we arrived there, other teams. Were waiting for the competition began Event : The first I played a single match. I knew I was an underdog so I played more relaxed. I could play ail my ability. That was the key to the victory. Event : Then, my friends, the double players Mova & Dina, defeated their rival 20’-6, 20-10. It completed our victory. Reorientation : After the ceremony, our car arrived to take us home. We went home so happy that we didn’t feel tired.
TEXT F EXPLANATION
Making Paper From Woodchip General Statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in selected area of the forest called a coupe. A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At the mill the barks of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper
TEXT G NEWS ITEM
Town “Contaminated” News worthy Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Background events Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. The accident, which occurred 13 month before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the then Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tonnes of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it is the worst accident in th history of the Soviet Navy
TEXT H DISCUSSION
The controversy of Harmessing Solar Energy Issue: We often hear about solar cars, solar heating and solar batteries. But will solar energy ever be a major source of energy society? Argument ‘for’ point Solar energy is cheaper than other fossil because we can get an abundant source from the sun Elaboration In sunny desert areas, 50% of the sun’s radiation that reach the ground could be used to produce electricity for business and industry, to provide heat, light and hot water for homes. Experimental solar ponds can also produce hot water to drive generators. Argumen ‘against’ point Unfortunately , we cant yet power our homes entirely on sunlight Elaboration Solar energy can only be used effectively in bright light. Its greatest potential. Therefore is in hot countries that have clear skies for most of the year. But, unfortunately most homes are nor always in the sunniest part of the world. Moreover, in order to harness solar power solar cells are needed to convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are very cheap to run, but relatively expensive to buy and many people cant afford them Conclusion Needless to say, solar energy is useful and non-pollution source of energy. Unfortunately, solar cells, the main device to harness the sun’s energy are still very expensive.
TEXT I SPOOF
Last week I took my five-year old son, Willy, to a musical instrument store in my hometown. I wanted to buy him a set of junior drum because his drum teacher advised me to buy him one. Willy likes listening to music very much. He also likes asking me everything he wants to know. Even his questions sometimes seem precocious for a boy of his age. He is very inquisitive.
We went there by car. On the way, we saw a policeman standing near a traffic light regulating the passing cars and other vehicles. He blew his whistle now and then.
Seeing the policeman blowing his whistle, Willy asked me at once, “Dad, why is the policeman using a whistle, not a drum?”
Hearing his unexpected question I answered reluctantly, “Because he is not Phil Collin!”
TEXT J REVIEW
Cinta (Dian Sastrowardoyo) is a beautiful, smart and confident seventeen year old. Born in a loving family, surrounded by caring and supporting friends. Cinta seems to have everything in the world. She has four best friends, Milly (Sissy Pricillia), Karmen (Adinia Wirasti), Alya (Ladya Cheryl), and Maura(Titi Kamal) who always protect her. She’s also the object of Borne’s affection, the most eligible boyfriend at school.
But things are starting to change when Cinta meets Rangga (Nicholas saputra), a cool and arrogant boy whose presence is never taken into account at school. The unpredictable character of Rangga has disturbed Cinta. It creates a new and unfamiliar sensation which leads Cinta into a new and strange world. The next thing she knows, she has fallen in love with someone who has a very different character and comes from a very different world.
Bit by bit, Cinta starts to change. She becomes a new person, a stranger to her friends and even to herself. She doesn’t understand what has happened, let alone her friends.